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use case textual description template

use case textual description template

With respect to the Specific Section structure, some volunteers said that this structure eased the identification of alternative and optional features by presenting all the variations described at the end of the use case. Table 8 presents a summary of the collected data. Technical report, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. Alferez et al. The final question was associated with an important question about the use case understanding. Jeyayaj and Sauter (2007) also compared these two modeling methods, but only from the point of view of comprehension of diagrams. Where a Business Rule applies within the use case, create a reference to the exact step in the Alternative Flow where the rule applies. (1990). In this template, additional sections are used to specify performance, usability, and security requirements. 2014). Table 1. Use Cases are meant to represent the high level functional areas of the system, as represented in a ULM Use Case Model (or use case diagram). This comparison was made based on the SPL requirements modeling, specification, verification and management. Figure 5 shows the “Withdraw Money” specified in this template. In the mean time, review the table below to get a basic understanding of what is in the use case and then we will review each element as we progress through our use case … However, to the best of our knowledge, no efforts have been made to collect and summarize these existing templates. Have you ever been disappointed when a new software release does not include that one common feature all users want? The study started with 48 subjects; however, some of the subjects’ tasks were not approved, since the final question of the comprehension test was not answered correctly. volume 3, Article number: 5 (2015) The next step is to define the use case at a low level of detail. Empirical Softw Eng 19(3): 678–713. (2003) and Jirapanthong (2009) were excluded due to the first criterion; and the templates proposed by Kamsties et al. r Nakanishi, T, Fujita M, Yamazaki S, Yamashita N, Ashihara S (2007) Tailoring the domain engineering process of the plus method In: Proceedings of the 14th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, 486–493.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. A Detailed Use Case Specification. A Use Case Specification is a textual description of the functionality provided by the system. It … This evaluation was made with respect to the effort from the researcher’s viewpoint. Several feature model languages have been proposed since the introduction of Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA) by Kang et al. Hollander, M, Wolfe DA (1999) Nonparametric Statistical Methods. The Systematic Mapping study is a type of secondary study that can complement Systematic Literature Reviews. Choi, W, Kang S, Choi H, Baik J (2008) Automated generation of product use case scenarios in product line development In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer and Information Technology.. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. The variable time spent was measured by collecting the time spent in minutes to answer the comprehension test in each task. Similar to the template of Bertolino and Gnesi (2003), Kamsties et al. This explains the actors, conditions – pre & post, flow of events ,alternative flows , exceptional flow and other important information of a use case. On the other hand, the time taken was collected in order to assess the effort related to the use cases’ understanding. Chap. Requir Eng J 19: 355–376. (2013) from this controlled experiment, because the use of the Alternative Scenarios structure is similar to common use case structures, since the variations are described just like alternative scenarios. Regarding the seven other templates, the specification of Optional and Mandatory Alternative Exactly 1 is taken into account in all of them. 2008). Each tag is expanded in a section called “Variations” and is mapped to the Orthogonal Variability Model (OVM). Eriksson, M, Börstler J, Borg K (2005) The pluss approach: domain modeling with features, use cases and use case realizations In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Software Product Lines (SPLC’05), 33–44.. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. For this, works in literature (e.g. The subjects using this template structure had better results in terms of accuracy; ERQ2: Which of the evaluated template structures requires less time to understand a use case? 1 a The use of the Step Identifier structure has shown to have the best results in the experiment. The use case brief is a two-to-six sentence description of use case behavior, mentioning only the most significant activity and failures. 2013), which are frequently used in many systematic reviews, and the search string considered synonyms and acronyms. Nine undergraduate students had never studied SPL. In regards to the validity of the results, we discuss in the next paragraphs the internal and external validity. Contact Author. The use case model captures the requirements of a system. Jeyaraj, A, Sauter VL (2007) An empirical investigation of the effectiveness of systems modeling and verification tools. Large significance values (>0.05) indicate that the observed distribution corresponds to the theoretical distribution. In that way, even a small change in the common use case scenario (e.g. (2003) and Choi et al. They are: i) Kamties et al.‘s template (Kamsties et al. If so, understanding how use cases improve your business may be beneficial. In this scenario, Bonifacio and Borba (2008) show that the use of the PLUC (Bertolino and Gnesi 2003) could result in maintainability issues because introducing a new product variant might require changes in several artifacts. Keep in mind that use cases are just textual descriptions, and their main purpose is to document the behavior of a system in a clear, concise, and understandable way. In most real-world projects, teams find it helpful to use a more fully-dressed format.. This is really important. Choi et al. and H 2000). Thus, in an SPL, the requirements define applications and their features. ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/software/rational/web/whitepapers/2003/TP165.pdf. The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of the template structure on the comprehensibility of SPL use cases. Use case descriptions. The use case specification will be based on the activity diagram. IEEE Softw. Therefore, the template used for textual use cases in the SPL paradigm should allow the specification of “small variations” (Gomaa 2004) (fine-grained variation), which can affect just one or two lines in the use case description. UC10) Description (A couple of sentences or a paragraph describing the basic idea of the use case) Goal (The business goal of the initiating actor) Preconditions (List the state(s) the system can be in before this use case starts) Assumptions You can also show interfaces to the Use Case here, and which of the classes implement the inter-faces.> Other Artifacts Figure 91: Detailed Use Case Description Document Template (cont.) 2013) have been proposed based on previous ones, these studies do not empirically compare their proposed templates with previously defined ones. Core assets development, also known as Domain Engineering, aims to define commonalities and variability and to develop the artifacts for reuse. We conclude that each characteristic of the existing templates has an impact on the SPL use case understanding and this should be taken into account when choosing one. Create template Templates let you quickly answer FAQs or store snippets for re-use. Example of use case with Specific Section. Then, in spite of the fact that this study has a specific focus (textual use case templates) we chose the Systematic Mapping approach because the main goal of this study is to identify and classify the different SPL use case templates. (2013) and Eriksson et al. Then, from the templates of Gallina and Guelfi (2007), and Bragança and Machado (2005) we chose the last one, because it has questions associated with the variations points and we wanted to verify their impact on the SPL use cases’ compressibility. In the Choi et al. provides a use case template which is exhaustive example of an textual description [4]. Answer: The Tags structure, represented by the template of Eriksson et al., requires less time to understand a use case. It is helping to make a diagram process included in the use case template. Home; About Us; Use Case Template and an Example. A feature model represents the information of all possible products of an SPL in terms of features and the relationships among them (Benavides et al. Moreover, the description of the variabilities at the end of the use case in the Specific Section structure and the use of questions in the structure presented by Bragança and Machado (Tags structure) were also identified as important characteristics to the understanding of the SPL use case. October 8, 2009 By Michael Shrivathsan. It is often phrased in the form of a dialog between the actor and the system. (2008) were excluded due to the second criterion. Therefore, we did not find a significant difference among levels of previous knowledge related to the participants that justified a special grouping. Cheng, BHC, Atlee JM (2007) Research directions in requirements engineering In: Proceedings of the Future of Software Engineering (FOSE ’07).. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. In a recent work, Oliveira et al. Teams constructing from commercial, off-the-shelf components (COTS) use this description in selecting the components. A scenario is a list of steps. Erikssona, M, Borstler J, Borg K (2004) Marrying features and use cases for product line requirements modeling of embedded systems In: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden, 73–82.. Institute of Technology, Unitryck, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. PubMed Google Scholar. Once it was detected that there were differences in the time and accuracy associated with the templates’ use, an analysis was made of the data crossing template by template, trying to identify the differences. The results of this experiment show that the specification of variabilities in the steps’ numeric identifiers of the textual use cases is better to the use case understanding than the other approaches identified. Nguyen (2009) extends Gomaa‘s template (Gomaa 2004) to specify non-functional requirements. Eriksson, M, Morast H, Börstler J, Borg K (2005) The pluss toolkit? 2008): i) Mapping studies generally have broader research questions driving them and often ask multiple research questions; ii) The search terms for mapping studies will be less highly focused than for systematic reviews and are likely to return a very large number of studies; and iii) SR aims at establishing the state of evidence while the main focus of an SM is on classification and identification of publication fora. c The use case templates used in this experiment were: i) Bragança and Machado (Tags structure), ii) Eriksson et al. In application engineering, the requirements for individual products of the SPL are defined by reusing the domain requirements. In this scenario, the contributions of this paper are: i) offer a summary of existing use case templates as a result of a systematic mapping study with a focus on how to describe SPL variability in textual use cases; and ii) describe the results of a controlled experiment with four SPL use case template structures. Thus, we believe that the SM process was rigorously followed and that the results obtained are valid. The description of a use case allows you to: *clarify the course of the functionality; *describe the chronology of the actions to be carried out; *to identify redundant parts to deduce more precise use cases that will be used by inclusion, extension or generalization / specialization. A use case is a textual description of how a person who actually uses a system will interact with it. Neto, PAMS, Machado IC, Mcgregor JD, Almeida ES, Meira SRL (2011) A systematic mapping study of software product lines testing. Using Creately editor, you can change these colors as you wish. Using these tags, any text fragment of the textual use case description may be variant and this is explicitly marked by pairs of the XML-like tags and . After removing duplicate studies, and reading title and abstract of all the 2394 papers according to Step 2, the result was a set of 101 potentially relevant studies. Then, we present the results and discussion. Regarding the study language, the choice of the English language is justified to make this mapping study replicable and feasible. The final outcome of this process is a systematic map. Dari tiap tiap use case yang ada akan kita deskripsikan secara detail dengan Use Case Description. Click on the diagram to edit online. Blanes and Insfran (2012) analyzed requirement engineering approaches that use Model-Driven Development (MDD) techniques for SPL development. 6.1 Getting Started 219 Overview on the Used Development Process (1) Start with a use case diagram giving an overview on the system, its … Only two graduate students had never worked with textual use case descriptions while eight graduate students had never studied SPL. We highlight that we removed the keywords “software”, “textual” and “template” from the search string because in preliminary searches with these keywords in the search string we lost important papers for our research goal. Asadi et al. Finally, the template presented by Oliveira et al. 2011). Actors: Shopper; … This work has used subjects with different knowledge in use cases technique in order to investigate whether subjects’ experiences play any role in the comprehension of use cases models. In Software Product Line development, the requirements engineering activity needs to cope with common and variable requirements for the whole set of products in the family. In this template, we can observe the description of the variabilities at the end of the use case. However, the maintainability problems could be present in these templates because, in the variability description, there is the identification of the line number of the main scenario (the target of the variation). i Tagged: usecase,case,uml,tech,software,use case mobile network,use case of cellular network,mobile phone use case,use case for mobile,use case template,usecase templates,use case,uml usecase. (2010) the feature models can be grouped into three categories: (i) Basic feature models, offering mandatory, optional, alternative and ‘or’ features, as well as constraints between features like ‘requires’ and ‘excludes’; (ii) Cardinality-based feature models, offering, in addition, UML-like multiplicities for feature selection; and (iii) Extended feature models, where additional information is included in terms of feature attributes. (2013), Bonifacio and Borba (2009), and Anthonysamy and Somé (2008), where the variability type is specified by the feature model. With this mapping study, we found twelve use case templates for an SPL. Hadar et al. Then, in both templates the specification of the variabilities is made with the name of the variability, type of requirement (optional or alternative), line number of the use case affected by the variability, and the variability description. Finally, the third phase, Results, is responsible for reporting the study outcomes based on a classification scheme. y The use case description is a narrative document that describes, in general terms, the required functionality of the use case. (2007), which reports an experimental case study constructing an SPL with the PLUS method (Gomaa 2004). As described in Section 4.4.1, we identified five different template structures for SPL use cases: Tags, Specific Section, Alternative Scenarios, Step Identifier and Advice use case. Both present a use case example with the template proposed by Bertolino and Gnesi (2003). We planned to minimize the effect of instrumentation by performing measures by a single person during the experiment. Then, in order to evaluate the accuracy, we analyzed the participants’ answers for the two first questions of the comprehension test, which asks the volunteer to describe the alternative and optional steps of the task use case. (2005) is interesting because it uses the step identifier to specify the alternative and optional steps. Besides the two defined categories, we decided to use the category for classification of research defined by Wieringa et al. Table 2 shows the number of papers, after performing each step of the study selection process. Azevedo, S, Machado RJ, Bragança A, Ribeiro H (2012) On the refinement of use case models with variability support. Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development Now that you have a use case model and an overview of the steps inside the use case you are dealing with – next thing to do is to write the use case specification. (A unique identifier for this use case, e.g. In order to mitigate the first threat, the other two authors carefully reviewed the protocol and monitored the SM process and the analysis of the results. The use case template identified in the Bragança and Machado‘s paper (Bragança and Machado 2005) specifies the variation points through OPT and ALT tags. 2005) and two other approaches to modularity, expressiveness, and stability through the specification and evolution of a car crash crisis management system SPL. 2008). (2007) and Oliveira et al. Gallina, B, Guelfi N (2007) A template for requirement elicitation of dependable product lines In: Proceedings of the 13th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, REFSQ’07, 63–77.. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. A requirement is a contract or promise that the use case will perform an action or … Therefore, no quality criteria were defined for this mapping study. related with the variabilities aiming to guide the instantiation of the product use cases. Bertolino, A, Gnesi S (2003) Use case-based testing of product lines In: Proceedings of the 9th European Software Engineering Conference, 355–358.. ACM, New York, NY, USA. The students were associated to four universities in Brazil. Is the identification done through the PIN? The difference among these studies is in the applied evaluation criteria and in the type of approach selected. No papers were classified as Opinion Paper, Experience Paper or Philosophical Paper. It captures actor-system interaction. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has not been a systematic effort to collect and summarize the existing templates for textual use case descriptions in the SPL paradigm and there is no empirical assessment of the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility provided by these use case templates. As Nguyen‘s template (Nguyen 2009) is based on Gomaa‘s template (Gomaa 2004), we chose the template from Gomaa. In this approach, the use cases model is composed of use cases and aspectual use cases. An exception is the template of Bonifacio and Borba. Carol Britton, Jill Doake, in A Student Guide to Object-Oriented Development, 2005. Use case diagrams are usually referred to as behavior diagrams used to describe a set of actions that some system or systems should or can perform in collaboration with one or more external users of the system . In other words, use cases describe the conversation between a system and its user(s), known as actors. The keywords in this category are: Optional: The use case template supports the specification of optional steps; Mandatory alternative exactly 1: The use case template supports the specification of mutually exclusive alternatives for one mandatory step; Mandatory alternative at least 1: The use case template supports the specification of alternatives for one mandatory step out of which at least one must be selected; Optional alternative exactly 1: The use case template supports the specification of mutually exclusive alternatives for one optional step; Optional alternative at least 1: The use case template supports the specification of alternatives for one optional step out of which at least one must be selected. Use Case depends on ‘User Actions’ and ‘Response of System’ to the User Actions.It is the documentation of the ‘Actions’ performed by the Actor/User and the corresponding ‘Behaviour’ of the System to the User ‘Actions’. As we can see in this figure, steps 2 and 3 are optional ones. In this scenario, one of the requirements artifacts most used in SPL development are use cases (Alves et al. Oliveira et al. Using these tags, any text fragment of the textual use case description may be variant and this is explicitly marked by pairs of the XML-like tags and . An example of this question is below: “Before selecting the amount of money, the user must: b) at least insert the chip card in the ATM, c) at least enter the fingerprint OR a sample voice, d) at least enter the PIN, and fingerprint or a voice sample. For this mapping study, we defined just one inclusion criterion: (IC1) the study presents a template for textual use cases description of an SPL. The reference should link to the specific rule defined in the Business Rules artifact. With the performed experiment we observed which characteristics of each use case template structure impact on the SPL use cases’ comprehensibility. two steps identified with the same number are alternative steps), had the best results. Input compris-es of textual use-cases and Temporal Annotation De nition Language (TADL) templates. Besides that, this structure was selected as preferred by only 3% of the volunteers according to the post-experiment questionnaire (considering only the 134 valid executions with the final question correct). Tahap awal untuk membuat Use Case Description adalah dengan membuat tabel Use Case Description seperti yang terdapat di Gambar 2; Tahap Kedua adalah men-define: 1. Petersen, K, Feldt R, Mujtaba S, Mattsson M (2008) Systematic mapping studies in software engineering In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, 68–77.. British Computer Society, Swinton, UK, UK. to implement this use case. Bonifácio, R, Borba P, Soares S (2008) On the benefits of scenario variability as crosscutting In: Proceedings of the 2008 AOSD Workshop on Early Aspects, 6–168.. ACM, New York, NY, USA. Requirements. Secondly, this work presents an evaluation of the comprehensibility of SPL use cases specified in these templates through a controlled experiment with 48 volunteers. 2005). Figure 1 presents the use case “Withdraw Money” in the template found in the Bragança and Machado work (Bragança and Machado 2005). You can edit this template and create your own diagram.Creately diagrams can be exported and added to Word, PPT (powerpoint), Excel, Visio or any other document. Thus, with this result the hypothesis H An aspectual use case has a name and a list of advices that can extend the behavior of existing scenarios. It … This use case is composed by one optional variant, related to the use of the PIN for the user’s identification, and two optional alternative variants, related with other two types of identification (through fingerprint or voice sample). The Step Identifier structure used by Eriksson et al. You can use this example diagram to draw similar use cases in Creately. alternative steps with cardinality). We merged the categories Research Type and Variability Description in a systematic map (Fig. Description This Use Case template pack includes a Use Case template, Use Case tutorial, Requirements Traceability Matrix, Data Dictionary and Visio templates. Researchers will benefit because the SM results indicate existing research gaps that need further investigation. Use Case Name: Place Order. The results of both these SLRs show that use cases is one of the most used artifacts for describing SPL functional requirements, but they do not explore the variability description in such artifacts. Revista de Sistemas e Computação (RSC Journal) 2: 3–13. Sample Use Case Example. In this post, I share a use case template in a fully-dressed format, as well as a use case example using the template.

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